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Dental Glossary

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Abutment: A tooth or implant used to support a prosthesis. A crown unit used as part of a fixed bridge.
Abscess: A localized inflammation due to a collection of pus in the bone or soft tissue, usually caused by an infection.
Amalgam: A dental filling material, composed of mercury and other minerals, used to fill decayed teeth.
Alveoloplasty:A surgical procedure used to recontour the supporting bone structures in preparation of a complete or partial denture.
Anesthetic: A class of drugs that eliminates or reduces pain.
Apex: The tip or end of the root of the tooth.
Apicoectomy: The amputation of the apex of a tooth.


Bicuspid: A two-cuspid tooth found between the molar and the cuspid also known as an eye tooth or canine tooth.
Biopsy:A process of removing tissue to determine the existence of pathology.
Bitewing x-rays: X-rays taken of the crowns of teeth to check for decay.
Bleaching: The Technique of applying a chemical agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, to the teeth to whiten them.

Bonding: A process to chemically etch the tooth’s enamel to better attach (bond) composite filling material, veneers, or plastic/acrylic.

Bridge: A nonremovable restoration that is used to replace missing teeth.
Bruxism: The involuntary clenching or grinding of the teeth.


Calculus:The hard deposit of mineralized plaque that forms on the crown and/or root of the tooth. Also referred to as tartar.
Canine tooth:The second tooth from the big front tooth, commonly called the eye tooth or cuspid.
Cap: Another term for crown; usually referring to a crown for a front tooth.
Caries: The correct technical term for decay which is the progressive breaking down or dissolving of tooth structure, caused by the acid produced when bacteria digests sugars.
Cavity: A layman’s term for tooth decay. Also, the dental term for the hole that is left after decay has been removed.
Cement: A special type of glue used to hold a crown in place. It also acts as an insulator to protect the tooth's nerve.
Cementum: The very thin, bonelike structure that covers the root of the tooth.
Clenching: The forceful holding together of the upper and lower teeth, which places stress on the ligaments that hold the teeth to the jawbone and the lower jaw to the skull.
Complex Rehabilitation: The extensive dental restoration involving 6 or more units of crowns and/or bridges in the same treatment plan. Using full crowns and/or fixed bridges which are cemented in place, your dentist will rebuild natural teeth, fill in spaces where teeth are missing and establish conditions which allow each tooth to function in harmony with the occlusion (bite). The extensive procedures involved in complex rehabilitation require and extraordinary amount of time, effort, skill and laboratory
collaboration for a successful outcome.
Composite: A tooth-colored filling made of plastic resin or porcelain.
Consultation: A diagnostic service provided by a dentist other than the treating dentist.
Cosmetic Dentistry: Any dental treatment or repair that is solely rendered to improve the appearance of the teeth or mouth.
Crown: The portion of a tooth that is covered by enamel. Also a dental restoration that covers the entire tooth and restores it to its original shape.
Crown Lengthening: A surgical procedure exposing more tooth for restorative purposes.
Curettage: A deep scaling of that portion of the tooth below the gum line. The purpose is to remove calculus and infected gum tissue.
Cuspid: The pointy teeth just behind the laterals. These teeth have one cuspal or point. Cuspids are also called canine teeth.
Cusp(s): The protruding portion(s) of a tooth’s chewing surface.


Decay: Tooth decay, when a tooth gets cavities.
Deciduous: Baby teeth. They are also known as the primary dentition.
Dental floss: A thin, nylon string, waxed or unwaxed, that is inserted between the teeth to remove food and plaque.
Dental hygienist: A dental professional specializing in cleaning the teeth by removing plaque, calculus, and diseased gum tissue. He/She acts as the patient’s guide in establishing a proper oral hygiene program.
Dentin: The part of the tooth that is under both the enamel which covers the crown and the cementum which covers the root.
Denture: A removable appliance used to replace teeth. A Complete denture replaces all of the teeth and/or all the lower teeth. See also partial denture.
DDS: Doctor of Dental Surgery or DMD, Doctor of Dental Medicine, Degrees given to dental school graduates. Both degrees are the same; particular dental schools identify at their discretion their graduates as DMD or DDS.
Direct pulp cap: The procedure in which the exposed pulp is covered with a dressing or cement that protects the pulp and promotes healing and repair.
Dry socket: A localized inflammation of the tooth socket following an extraction due to infection or loss of a blood clot.


Enamel: The hard, calcified (mineralized) portion of the tooth which covers the crown. Enamel is the hardest substance in the body.
Endodontics: The dental specialty that deals with injuries to or diseases of the pulp, or nerve, of the tooth.
Extraction: The removal of a tooth.
Excision: Surgical removal of bone or tissue.
Exostosis: The overgrowth of normal bone.
Extracoronal: The outside of the crown of the tooth.
Extraoral: The outside of the mouth.


Filling: Material used to fill a cavity or replace part of a tooth.
Fluoride: A chemical compound used to prevent dental decay, utilized in fluoridated water systems and/or applied directly to the teeth.
Frenum: Muscle fibers covered by a mucous membrane that attaches the cheek, lips and or tongue to associated dental mucosa.
Frenectomy: The removal of a frenum.


Gingiva: The soft tissue that covers the jawbone. Also referred to as the gums.
Gingivectomy: The removal of gingiva (gum).
Gingivitis: An inflammation or infection of the gingiva (gum tissue); the initial stage of gum disease.
Gingivoplasty: A surgical procedure to reshape or repair the gingiva (gum).
Graft: A piece of tissue or synthetic material placed in contract with tissue to repair a defect or supplement a deficiency.


Immediate Denture: A denture constructed for immediate placement after removal of the remaining teeth.
Impacted tooth: An unerupted or partially erupted tooth that is positioned against another tooth, bone or soft tissue so that complete eruption is unlikely.
Implant: An artificial device, usually made of a metal alloy or ceramic material, that is implanted within the jawbone as a means to attach an artificial crown, denture, or bridge.
Incisors: The four front teeth referred to as central and lateral incisors, located in the upper and lower jaws and used to cut and tear food. The central incisors are the two large teeth in the middle of the mouth and the lateral incisors are next to the central
incisor, one on each side.
Indirect pulp cap: A procedure in which the nearly exposed pulp is covered with a protective dressing to protect the pulp from additional injury and to promote healing and repair via formation of secondary dentin.
Inlay: A cast gold filling that is used to replace part of a tooth.
Intracoronal: The area within the crown of a tooth.
Intraoral: The inside of the mouth.


Labial: The area pertaining to or around the lip.
Lingual: The area pertaining to or around the tongue.
Local anesthetic: The injection given in the mouth to numb the areas where a tooth or area needs a dental procedure. Often referred to as Novocain.


Malocclusion: The improper alignment of biting or chewing surfaces of upper and lower teeth.
Maryland Bridge: The trade name that has become synonymous with any resin bonded fixed partial denture (bridge).
Mastication: The act of chewing.
Maxilla: The upper jaw.
Metals, classification of: The noble metal classification systems has been adopted as a more precise method of reporting various alloys in dentistry commonly used in crowns, bridges and dentures. These alloys contain varying percentages of gold, palladium and/or platinum. High noble contains more than 60% of gold, palladium, and/or platinum (with at least 40% gold); noble contains more than 25% gold, palladium and/or platinum.
Molars: The broad, multicuspid back teeth, used for grinding food are considered the largest teeth in the mouth. In adults there are a total of twelve molars (including the four wisdom teeth, or third molars), three on each side of the upper and lower jaws.


Nitrous oxide: A controlled mixture of nitrogen and oxygen gases (N20) that is inhaled by the patient in order to decreases sensitivity to pain. Also referred to as laughing gas.
Novocaine: A generic name for the many kinds of anesthetics used in the dental injection, such as Xylocaine, Lidocaine, or Novocaine


Occlusal x-ray: An intraoral x-ray taken with the film held between the teeth in biting position.
Occlusal surface: The chewing surface of the back teeth.
Occlusion: Any contract between biting or chewing surfaces of upper and lower teeth.
Onlay: A cast gold or porcelain filling that covers one or all of the tooth’s cusps.
Oral surgery: The removal of teeth and the repair and treatment of other oral problems, such as tumors and fractures.
Orthodontics: A specialized branch of dentistry that corrects malocclusion and restores the teeth to proper alignment and function. There are several different types of appliances used in Orthodontics, one of which is commonly referred to as braces.
Overbite: A condition in which the upper teeth excessively overlap the lower teeth when the jaw is closed. This condition can be corrected with Orthodontics.


Palate: The hard and soft tissues forming the roof of the mouth.
Palliative: Treatment that relieves pain but is NOT curative.
Panorex: An extraoral full-mouth X-ray that records the teeth and the upper and lower jaws on one film.
Partial denture: A removable appliance used to replace one or more lost teeth.
Periapical: The area that surrounds the root tip of a tooth.
Pericoronitis: An inflammation of the gum tissue around the crown of a tooth, usually the third molar.
Periodontal: Relating to the tissue and bone that supports the tooth
(from peri, meaning, "around",
and odont, "tooth").
Periodontal disease: The inflammation and infection of gums, ligaments, bone, and other tissue surrounding the teeth. Gingivitis and periodontitis are the two main forms of periodontal disease. Also called gum disease or pyorrhea.
Periodontal pocket: An abnormal deepening of the gingival crevice. It is caused when disease and infection destroy the ligament that attaches the gum to the tooth and the underlying bone.
Periodontal surgery: A surgical procedure involving the gums and jawbone.
Periodontics: The dental specialty that deals with and treats the gum tissue and bone that supports the teeth.
Periodontitis: Advanced gum disease. Inflammation of the supporting structures of the tooth, including the gum, the periodontal ligament, and the jawbone.
Permanent teeth: The thirty-two adult teeth that replace the baby, or primary teeth. Also known as secondary teeth.
Pit: A recessed area found on the surface of a tooth, usually where the grooves of the tooth meet.
Plaque: A film of sticky material containing saliva, food particles, and bacteria that attaches to the tooth surface both above and below the gum line. When left on the tooth it can promote gum disease and tooth decay.
Pontic: An artificial tooth used in a bridge to replace a missing tooth.
Premolar: Another name for bicuspid.
Preventive Dentistry: Education and treatment devoted to and concerned with preventing the development of dental disease.
Preventive treatment: Any action taken by the patient, assisted by the hygienist and the office staff that serves to prevent dental or other disease. Sealants, cleaning and space maintainers are examples of preventive treatment.
Prophylaxis: The scaling and polishing procedure performed to remove calculus, plaque, and stains from the crowns of the teeth.
Pulp: The hollow chamber inside the crown of the tooth that contains its nerves and blood vessels.
Pulpectomy: Removal of the entire pulp from the canals in the root.
Pulpitis: An often painful inflammation of the dental pulp or nerve.
Pulpotomy: The removal of a portion of the tooth’s pulp.


Quadrant: The dental term for the division of the jaws into four parts, beginning at the midline of the arch and extending towards the last tooth in the back of the mouth. There are four quadrants in the mouth; each quadrant generally contains five to eight


Rebase: The process of refitting a denture by replacing the base material.
Receded gums: A condition characterized by the abnormal loss of gum tissue due to
infection or bone loss.
Referral: When a dental patient from one office is sent to another dentist, usually a specialist, for treatment or consultation.
Reline: The process of resurfacing the tissue side of a denture with a base material.
Replantation: The return of a tooth to its socket.
Restoration: Any material or devise used to replace lost tooth structure (filling, crown) or to replace a lost tooth or teeth or holds teeth in a fixed position until the bone solidifies around them.
Retainer: A removable dental appliance, usually used in Orthodontics, that maintains space between teeth or holds teeth in a fixed position until the bone solidifies around them.
Retrograde filling: A method of sealing the root canal by preparing and filling it from the root tip, generally done at the completion of an Apicoectomy.
Root: The part of the tooth below the crown, normally encased in the jawbone. It is made up of dentin, includes the root canal, and is covered by cementum.
Root canal: The hollow part of the tooth’s root. It runs from the tip of the root into the pulp.
Root canal therapy: The process of treating disease or inflammation of the pulp or root canal. This involves removing the pulp and root’s nerve(s) and filling the canal(s) with an appropriate material to permanently seal it.
Root planing: The process of scaling and planing exposed root surfaces to remove all calculus, plaque, and infected tissue.


Scaling: A procedure used to remove plaque, calculus and stains from the teeth.
Sealant: A composite material used to seal the decay-prone pits, fissures, and grooves of children’s teeth to prevent decay
Six-year molar: The first permanent tooth to erupt, usually between the ages of five and six.
Socket: The hole in the jawbone into which the tooth fits.
Space maintainer: A dental appliance that fills the space of a lost tooth or teeth and prevents the other teeth from moving into the space. Used especially in Orthodontic and pediatric treatment.
Stainless steel crown: A pre-made crown, shaped like a tooth, that is used to temporarily cover a seriously decayed or broken down tooth. Used most often on children’s teeth.
Subgingival scaling: The removal of calculus and plaque found on the tooth above the gum line.
Systemic: Relating to the whole body.


Tartar: Another name for calculus.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ): The connecting hinge mechanism between the upper jaw and the base of the skull.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome: The problems associated with TMJ, usually involving pain or discomfort in the joints and ligaments that attach the lower jaw to the skull or in the muscles used for chewing.
Third molar: The last of the three molar teeth, also called wisdom teeth. There are four third molars, two in the lower jaw and two in the upper jaw, one on each side. Some people are born without third molars.
Torus: A bony elevation or protuberance of normal bone, Usually seen on the upper palate behind the front teeth or under the tongue inside the lower jaw.
Treatment plan: A list of the work the dentist proposes to perform on a dental patient based on the results of the dental x-rays, examination and diagnosis. Often more than one treatment plan is needed.


Veneer: An artificial filling material, usually plastic, composite, or porcelain, that is used to provide an aesthetic covering over the visible surface of a tooth. Most often used on front teeth.


Wisdom teeth: The third molar, this is the eighth tooth from the center of the mouth to the back of the mouth. Wisdom teeth often have to be extracted because they become impacted.

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