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Medical Glossary


| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |  

A

Abaptiston
A cone-shaped trephine designed to avoid penetration of the brain when incising the skull

Abdomen
Area between the chest and the hips that contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen.

Abdominal Hysterectomy
The uterus is removed through the abdomen via a surgical incision.

Abdominoscopy
A type of surgery that uses a laparoscope, which is inserted into one or more small incisions, to examine the abdominal cavity. (See also endoscopy, laparoscopy, or minimally invasive surgery.)

Acetaminophen
A non-aspirin drug that reduces pain and lowers fever. It goes by several brand names, including Tylenol.

Abdominoplasty
Excision of abdominal fat and skin for cosmetic purposes.

Ablation
The removal, esp. of organs, abnormal growths, or harmful substances from the body by mechanical means, as by surgery.

Acetylcholine
A chemical in the brain that acts as neurotransmitter by sending nerve signals.

Acus
A needle, esp. one used in a surgical operation.

Acusector
A needle for cutting tissue by means of a high-frequency electric current.

ADD
or Attention Deficit Disorder
n :  A syndrome of learning and behavioral problems that is not caused by any serious underlying physical or mental disorder and is characterized esp. by difficulty in sustaining attention, by impulsive behavior (as in speaking out of turn), and usu. by excessive activity. Called also Minimal Brain Dysfunction.

Adenectomy

Surgical removal of the adenoids.

Adenocarcinoma
A cancer that develops in the lining or inner surface of an organ.

Adenoma
Benign growth starting in the glandular tissue. (See also fibroadenoma).

Affect
A person's affect is their immediate emotional state which the person can recognize subjectively and which can also be recognized objectively by others. A person's mood is their predominant current affect.

Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by excess control -a morbid fear of obesity leads the sufferer to try and limit or reduce their weight by excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Sufferers are typically more than 15% below the average weight for their height/sex/age. Typically they have amenorrhoea (if female) or low libido (if male). 1-2% of female teenagers are anorexic.

Anxiety
Anxiety is provoked by fear ofr apprehension and also results from a tension caused by conflicting ideas or motivations. Anxiety manifests through mental and somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, hyperventilation, and faintness.

Allograft
A tissue or organ obtained from one member of a species and grafted to genetically dissimilar member of the same species. Also called "allotransplant, homograft, homotransplant." Cf. "Autograft, syngraft, xenograft."

Amenorrhea
Absence or cessation of menstrual periods.

Amputate
To cut off (all or part of a limb or digit of the body), as by surgery.

Amputee
To cut off (all or part of a limb or digit of the body), as by surgery.

Anaplasty
Reconstruction or restoration, esp. by plastic surgery, of a lost or injured part.

Androgen
A hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.

Anesthesia
Loss of feeling or sensation as a result of drugs or gases. General anesthesia causes of loss of consciousness; local or regional anesthesia causes loss of feeling only to a specified area.

Angioplasty
The repair of a blood vessel, as by inserting a balloon-tipped catheter to unclog it or by replacing part of the vessel with either a piece of the patientís own tissue or a prosthetic device: Example: coronary angioplasty to widen an artery blocked by plaque.

Antibiotic
Chemical substances, produced by living organisms or synthesized (created) in laboratories, for the purpose of killing other organisms that cause disease.

Antibody
A protein produced by the immune system that helps identify and destroy foreign germs (virus or bacteria) that attack the body.

Anus
The opening of the rectum, or large intestine, to the outside of the body.

Aorta
Blood vessel that delivers oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body; it is the largest blood vessel in the body.

Aortic Valve
The valve that regulates blood flow from the heart into the aorta.

Appendectomy
Excision of the vermiform appendix.

Arterioles
Small branches of arteries.

Arteriotomy
The incision or opening into the lumen of an artery for the removal of a clot, embolus, or the like, or, formerly, for bloodletting.

Artery
A blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body.

Arthrectomy
Surgical excision of a joint.

Arthrodesis Permanent surgical immobilization of a joint. Also called "artificial ankylosis."

Arthroplasty
The surgical repair of a joint or the fashioning of a movable joint, using the patientís own tissue or an artificial replacement.

Artificial Heart
Any of various four-chambered devices, modeled on the human heart, that pump blood by attachment to a power source and that are constructed for temporary external use or for implantation as a temporary or permanent heart replacement.

Artificial Kidney
A mechanical device that operates outside the body and substitutes for the kidney by removing waste products from the blood, Also called "hemodialyzer." Cf Dialysis

Atherectomy
The removal of plaque from an artery by means of a tiny rotating cutting blade inserted through a catheter.

Atrophy
A continuous decline of a body part or tissue, usually a muscle, following a period of disuse or immobility.

Autograft
A tissue or organ that is grafted into a new position on the body of the individual from which it was removed. Also called " autoplast, autotransplant." Cf. allograft, syngraft, xenograft

Autologous
From the same organism: Example: and autologous graft

Autoplasty
The repair of defects with tissue from another part of the patientís body.

Autopsy
Examination of a body after death; performed to determine cause of death, or to verify a diagnosis.

B

Bacteremia
Presence of bacteria in the blood.

Balloon Angioplasty
A method of opening a clogged or narrowed blood vessel in which a small balloon is introduced into the vessel by means of a catheter and then inflated at the site of blockage.

Barium
A metallic, chemical, chalky, liquid used to coat the inside of organs so that they will show up on an x-ray.

Barium X-Rays
a type of diagnostic x-ray in which barium is used to diagnose abnormalities of the digestive tract. Barium enema, barium small-bowel enema, and barium swallow are types of barium x-rays.  

Bikini Cut
A horizontal surgical incision in the lower abdomen, often used for a hysterectomy or a Cesarean delivery, so called because it leaves a less noticeable scar than does a vertical incision.

Bilateral
Affecting both sides of the body; for example, bilateral breast cancer is cancer occurring in both breasts at the same time (synchronous) or at different times (metachronous).

Bioplastic
Plastic suitable for use as a biomaterial.

Biliary Tract
(Also called biliary system or biliary tree.) - Gallbladder and the bile ducts.

Bioplastic
Plastic suitable for use as a biomaterial.

Bladder
A hollow organ that urine drains into from the kidneys.

Blepharoplasty
Plastic surgery of the eyelid, used to remove epicanthic folds, sagging tissue, or winkles around the eyes or to repair injury to the eyelid.

Bloodletting
The act or practice of letting blood by opening a vein; phlebotomy.

Bone Marrow Transplant
The technique in which a small amount of bone marrow is withdrawn by a syringe from a donorís pelvic bone and injected into a patient whose ability to make new blood cells has been impaired by a disease, as anemia or cancer, or by exposure to radiation.

Bowel
Another word for the small and large intestines.

Braxton Hicks Contractions
Relatively brief, painless contractions of the uterus that may begin during the second half of pregnancy.

Bulimia Nervosa
Described by Russell in 1979, bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by lack of control. Abnormal eating behavior including dieting, vomiting, purging and particularly bingeing may be associated with normal weight and obesity. The syndrome is associated with guilt, depressed mood, low self-esteem and sometimes with childhood sexual abuse, alcoholism and promiscuity. May be associated with oesophageal ulceration and parotid swelling.

Bur
A cutting tool resembling that of a dentist, used for the excavation of bone.

Buttonhole
A short, straight incision through the wall of a cavity or a canal.

Bypass
A surgical procedure in which a diseased or obstructed hollow organ is temporarily or permanently circumvented. Cf coronary bypass, gastric bypass, heart-lung machine, intestinal bypass.

C

Cancer
Abnormal cells that divide without control, which can invade nearby tissues or spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.

Cannula
A metal tube for insertion into the body to draw off fluid or to introduce medication.

Captioning
Tiny blood Vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygenrich blood to the body.

Cardiac Arrest
The stopping of heartbeat.

Cardiectiomy
Excision of the heart.

Cardiectomy
Excision of the cardiac section of the stomach.

Cardiology
The clinical study and practice of treating the heart.

Cartilage
A smooth material that covers bone ends of a joint to cushion the bone and allow the joint to move easily without pain.

Castrate
To remove the testes of; emasculated; geld.

Catheter
A flexible tube used to drain fluid from or inject fluid into the body. The most common catheter is the Foley catheter, used to drain urine from the bladder.

Centesis
A puncture into a body cavity, usually to remove fluid.

Cerebellum
A large structure consisting of two halves (hemispheres) located in the lower part of the brain; responsible for the coordination of movement and balance.

Cerebral Embolism
A blood clot from one part of the body that is carried by the bloodstream to the brain where it blocks an artery.

Cerebral Hemorrhage
Bleeding within the brain.

Cerebrum
Consists of two parts (lobes), left and right, which form the largest and most developed part of the brain; initiation and coordination of all voluntary movement take place within the cerebrum. The basal ganglia are located immediately below the cerebrum.

Cervix
The outer, lower part of the uterus, with an opening connecting the uterus to the vagina.

Cesarean
Also called "Cesarean section", "c-section". An operation by which a fetus is taken from the uterus by cutting through the walls of the abdomen and uterus.

Cheiloplasty
Plastic surgery of the lip.

Chemopallidectomy
An operation for treating Parkinsonís disease and certain other diseases characterized by muscular rigidity, consisting of destroying a specific part of the corpus striatum by injection it with a chemical, usually alcohol.

Chemosurgery
The use of chemical substances to destroy diseased or unwanted tissue.

Cholecystectomy
Removal of the gallbladder

Cholelithiasis
A condition in which gallstones are present in the gallbladder.

Circumcise
To remove the prepuce of (a male), esp. as a religious rite.

Circumcision
An act, instance, or the rite of circumcising. Clitoris
a small, pea-shaped organ just above the urethra.

Coapt
To bring close together: Example: The surgeons coapted the edges of the wound.

Cochlear Implant
A device consisting of microelectrodes that deliver electrical stimuli directly to the auditory nerve when surgically implanted into the cochlea, enabling a person with sensorineural deafness to hear. Also called "artificial ear."

Colectomy
The removal of all or part of the colon or large intestine.

Colon
Large intestine.

Colon polyps
Small, fleshy, mushroom-shaped growths in the colon.

Colotomy
Incision or opening of the colon.

Commissurotomy
The incision of a band of commissures, esp. of miltral fibers, to correct mitral stenosis, Cf. valvulotomy.

Compressor
An instrument for compressing a part of the body.

Compulsion
The behavioral component of an obsession. The individual feels compelled to repeat a behavior which has no immediate benefit beyond reducing the anxiety associated with the obsessional idea. For instance, for a person obsessed by the idea that they are dirty, repeated ritual handwashing may serve to reduce anxiety.

Computed Tomography Scan (CAT or CT Scan)
a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.

Contusion
A bruise caused by a blow to the muscle, tendon, or ligament; caused when blood pools around the point of injury and discolors the skin.

Cordotomy
The surgical severance of certain nerve fibers of the spinal cord to alleviate intractable pain.

Cornea
The clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

Coronary Bypass
The surgical revascularization of the heart, using healthy blood vessels of the patient, performed to circumvent obstructed coronary vessels and improve blood flow.

Cosmetic Surgery
Plastic surgery for improving a personís appearance by restoration of damaged areas of skin, removal of wrinkles or blemishes, etc.

Costectomy
Excision of part of all of a rib. Also called "thoracectomy."

Costotome
An instrument, as shears or a knife, for incising or dividing a rib, as in costotomy.

Craniotomy
The operation of opening the skull, usually for operations on the brain.

Cryoextraction
The surgical removal of a cataract with a cryoprobe.

Cryoprobe
An instrument used in cryosurgery, having a supercooled tip for applying extreme cold to diseased tissue in order to remove or destroy it.

Cryosurgery
The use of extreme cold to destroy tissue for therapeutic purpose.

Curette
A scoop-shaped surgical instrument for removing tissue from body cavities, as the uterus.

Cutdown
The incision of a superficial vein in order to effect direct insertion of a catheter.

Cyclotome
A type of scalpel for performing a cyclotomy.

Cyclotomy
Incision of the ciliary muscle.

Cystectomy
Excision of a cyst or bladder, usually from the urinary bladder.

D

DDS
Doctor of Dental Surgery.

Debride
To clean (a wound) by debridement.

Debridement
Surgical removal of foreign matter and dead tissue from a wound.

Decerebrate
To remove the cerebrum.

Decompression
The procedure of relieving increased cranial, cardiac, or orbital pressure.

Decorticate
To remove the cortex from (an organ or structure).

Decortication
The removal of the cortex, the enveloping membrane, or a fibrinous covering from an organ or structure.

Defibrillator
An electronic device used to establish normal heartbeat.

Dehiscence
The bursting open of a surgically closed wound.

Dejŗ vu
Haven't you been here before?
An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a particular or unique event has happened before in exactly the same way.

Delusions
A condition in which the patient has lost touch with reality and experiences hallucinations and misperceptions. An incorrect belief which is out of keeping with the person's cultural context, intelligence and social background and which is held with unshakeable conviction.

Dementia
An chronic organic mental illness which produces a global deterioration in cognitive abilities and which usually runs a deteriorating course.

Depression
An affective disorder characterised by a profound and persistent sadness.

Depressor
An instrument for pressing down a protruding part, as a tongue depressor.

Dermatome
A mechanical instrument for cutting thin sections of skin for grafting.

Diagnostic Radiology
the use of various radiology techniques, mostly noninvasive, to diagnose an array of medical conditions. Diagnostic radiology includes the use of x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound.

Dilate
Relax; expand.

Dilator
An instrument for dilating body canals, orifices, or cavities.

Divulse
To tear away or apart, as distinguished from cut or dissect.

Divulsion
A tearing apart; violent separation.

DMD
Doctor of Dental Medicine.

Dopamine
A chemical substance, a neurotransmitter, found in the brain that regulates movement, balance, and walking.

Drain
A material or appliance for maintaining the opening of a wound to permit free exit of fluids.

Drainage
The drainage of fluids, as bile, urine, etc., from the body, or of pus and other diseased products from a wound.

Duodenojejunostomy
The formation of an artificial connection between the duodenum and the jejunum.

Durable Power of Attorney
A Legal document denoting a friend or family member as your legal guardian in case you are unable to make medical decisions for yourself.

E

Eczema Inflammation of the skin that causes itching and sometimes crusting, scaling, or blisters.

Electrosurgery
The use in surgery of an electric instrument, as an acusector, or of an electric current, as in electrocoagulation; surgical diathemy.

Embryectomy
Removal of an embryo.

Embryotomy
Dismemberment of a fetus, when natural delivery is impossible, in order to effect its removal.

Encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain.

Encephalotomy
Surgical incision or dissection of the brain.

Endarterectomy
The surgical stripping of a fat-encrusted, thickened arterial lining so as to open or widen the artery for improved blood circulation.

Endodontist
(Also called a pulp specialist.) - An endodontist has undergone specialized training in performing root canal therapy.

Endorphins
Endogenous biomechanical substances implicated in the alleviation of pain, produced as a result of body stress.

Enema
Liquid put into the rectum to clear out the bowel or to administer medications or food.

Engraft
(Of living tissue) to become grafted.

Enterectomy
Excision of part of the intestine.

Enucleate
To remove (a kernel, tumor, eyeball, etc.) From its enveloping cover.

Epidemic
A large outbreak of disease (see outbreak). An epidemic could include many people from the same city or community, or even from an entire country. A world-wide epidemic is called a pandemic.

Estrogen
A hormone secreted by the ovaries which affect many aspects of the female body, including menstrual cycles and pregnancy.

Eviscerate
To remove the contents of (a body organ).

Excise
To cut out or off, as a tumor.

Excision
The surgical removal of a foreign body or of tissue.

Exfoliate
To remove the surface of (a bone, the skin, etc.) In scales or laminae.

Exfoliation
The act, state, or process of exfoliating.

Explore
To investigate into, esp. mechanically, as with a probe.

Exscind
To cut out or off.

Exsect
To cut out.

Extension
The act of pulling the broken or dislocated part of a limb in a direction from the trunk, in order to bring the ends of the bone into their natural situation.

Exteriorize
To expose (an internal structure) temporarily outside the body, for observation, surgery, or experimentation.

Extirpate
To pull up by or as if by the roots; root up: Example: to extirpate an unwanted hair.

Eye Tuck
Eyelift.

F

Face-Lift
Plastic surgery on the face for elevating sagging tissues and eliminating wrinkles and other signs of age; rhytidectomy.

Fallopian Tubes
Two thin tubes that extend from each side of the uterus, toward the ovaries, as a passageway for eggs and sperm.

Febrile Seizure
A seizure caused by a high fever (see seizure).

Femur
Thighbone.

Fibrillation
Rapid contractions of the heart muscle.

Fibrosis
The growth of scar tissue possibly due to infection, inflammation, injury, or even healing.

Fistula
An opening made into a hollow organ, as the bladder or eyeball, for drainage.

Fixator
A device incorporating a metal bar and pins that is used in stabilizing difficult bone fractures.

Flap
A portion of skin or flesh that is partially separated from the body and may subsequently be transposed by grafting.

Fleam
A kind of lancet, as for opening veins.

Forceps
An instrument, as pincers or tongs, for seizing and holding objects, as in surgical operations.

Freeze
To render part of the body insensitive to pain or slower in its function by artificial means.

G

Gag
To fasten open the jaws of, as in surgical operations.

Gamma Camera
A device used in nuclear medicine to scan patients who have been injected with small amounts of radioactive materials.

Ganglion
A cluster of nerve cells.

Ganglionectomy
The excision of a ganglion.

Gastrectomy
Partial or total excision of the stomach.

Gastric
Related to the stomach.

Gastric Bypass
A Surgical procedure by which all or part of the stomach is circumvented by anastomosis to the small intestine, performed to overcome obstruction or in the treatment of morbid obesity. Also called "gastroplasty".

Gastroenterologist
Infection or irritation of the stomach and intestines, which may be caused by bacteria or parasites from spoiled food or unclean water, or eating food that irritates the stomach lining and emotional upsets such as anger, fear, or stress.

Gastroenterology
Field of medicine concerned with the function and disorders of the digestive system.

Gastroenterostomy
The making of a new passage between the stomach and the duodenum (gastroduodenostomy) or, esp., the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy).

Gastroplasty
Any plastic surgery on the stomach.

Gastrostomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the stomach through the abdominal wall, permitting intake of food or drainage of gastric contents.

General
(of anesthesia or and anesthetic) causing loss of consciousness and abolishing sensitivity to pain throughout the body.

Genes
Basic, functional units of heredity, each occupying a specific place on a chromosome.

Genital Herpes
A sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

Glucose
A simple sugar, which is the bodyís main source of energy.

Graft
A portion of living tissue surgically transplanted from one part of an individual to another, or from one individual to another, for its adhesion and growth.

Gyrectomy
Excision of a cerebral gyrus.

H

Hair Implant
The insertion of synthetic fibers or human hair into the scalp to cover baldness. Cf. Hair Transplant.

Hallucination
An abnormal sensory experience that arises in the absence of a direct external stimulus, and which has the qualities of a normal percept and is experienced as real and usually in external space. Hallucinations may occur in any sensory modality.

Hamstrings
Muscles located in the posterior compartment of the thigh.

Heart-Lung Machine
A machine that performs for the heart during open heart surgery.

Hematopathology
The study of blood, bone marrow and the organs and tissues that use blood cells to perform theirfunctions.

Hernioplasty
An operation for the repair of a hernia.

Herniorrhaphy
Correction of a hernia by a suturing procedure.

Heteroplasty
The repair of lesions with tissue from another individual or species.

Hemorrhage
The medical term for bleeding.

Hepatitis E
Virus spread mostly through unclean water. This type of hepatitis is common in developing countries and has not occurred in the United States.

Hepatologist
Physician who specializes in liver diseases.

Heteroplasty
The repair of lesions with tissue from another individual or species.

Hormones
Chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body functions.

Hydrotherapy
Use of water as a medical treatment.

Hydrotherapy
Use of water as a medical treatment.

Hymenotomy
Incision of the hymen

Hyperglycemia
High levels of glucose in the blood.

Hypomania
An affective disorder characterised by elation, overactivity, an insomnia.

Hypophysectomy
Excision of the pituitary gland.

Hypotension
abnormally low blood pressure.

Hysterectomy
Excision of the uterus.

I

Ileocolostomy
The surgical formation of an artificial opening between the ileum and the colon.

Ileostomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall, permitting drainage of the contents of the small intestine.

Ileum
Lower end of the small intestine.

Illusion
An abnormal perception caused by a sensory misinterpretation of and actual stimulus, sometimes precipitated by strong emotion, e.g. fear provoking a person to imagine they have seen an intruder in the shadows.

Imbrication
Overlapping of layers of tissue in the closure of wounds or in the correction of defects.

Immune
Protected from a disease, even when exposed to it. People can become immune after getting a disease or by getting vaccinated against the disease, Opposite of susceptible.

Immune System
Complex network of specialized cells and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by "foreign" invaders such as bacteria and viruses.

Immunity
Protection from disease. Having antibodies (see above) to a disease makes a person immune.

Immunology
The study of the bodyís immune system - its functions and disorders.

Implantable
Pertaining to a device, as a micro-pump or porous polymer membrane, for surgical insertion under the skin for the controlled release of a drug.

Interventional Radiology
An area of specialty within the field of radiology which uses various radiology techniques (such as x-ray, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds) to place wires, tubes, or other instruments inside a patient to diagnose or treat an array of conditions.

Intravascular Ultrasound
The use of ultrasound inside a blood vessel to better visualize the interior of the vessel in order to detect problems inside the blood vessel.

Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
A series of x-rays of the kidney, ureters, and bladder with the injection of a contrast dye into the vein - to detect tumors, abnormalities, kidney stones, or any obstructions, and to assess renal blood flow.

In Vitro Fertilization
Treatment for infertility in which a womanís egg is fertilized outside her body with her partnerís sperm or sperm from a donor.

Incision
A cutting into, esp. for surgical purposes.

Inflammation
Characteristic reaction of tissues to injury or disease marked by four signs: swelling, redness, heat, and pain.

Inosculate
To unite by openings, as arteries in anastomosis.

Insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin affects the amount of glucose absorbed by the liver.

Intestinal Bypass
The surgical circumvention, by anastomosis, of a diseased portion of the intestine; also sometimes used to reduce nutrient absorption in morbidly obese patients.

In Utero Surgery
Surgery performed on a fetus while it is in the womb.

Iridectome
A slender cutting instrument used in performing an iridectomy.

Iridectomize
To perform an iridectomy on.

Iridectomy
Excision of part of the iris.

Iridotomy
Incision of the iris, esp. for the formation of an artificial pupil by transverse division of fibers of the iris.

J

Jejunectomy
Excision of part or all of the jejunum.

Jejunostomy
An artificial opening from the jejunum through the abdominal wall, created for the drainage of jejunal contents or for feeding.

Jejunum
Middle section of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum.

Jugular Veins
Veins that carry blood from the head back to the heart.

K

Keratectomy
Excision of part of the cornea.

Keratoplasty
Plastic surgery performed upon the cornea, esp. a corneal transplantation.

Keratotomy
Incision of the cornea.

Keratoplasty
Plastic surgery performed upon the cornea, esp. a corneal transplantation.

Keratotomy
Incision of the cornea.

Ketoacidosis
High blood glucose, often caused by illness or taking too little insulin.

L

Labia Majora
The outer lips of the vagina.

Labia Minora
The inner lips of the vagina. 

Lactose
Sugar found in milk, which the body breaks down into galactose and glucose.

Laminectomy
The surgical removal of part of the posterior arch of a vertebra to provide access to the spinal canal, as for the excision of a ruptured disk.

Lancet
A small surgical instrument, usually sharp-point and two-edged, for making small incisions, opening abscesses, etc.

Laparectomy
Excision of strips of the abdominal wall and suturing of the wounds so as to correct laxity of abdominal muscles.

Laparoscope
A flexible fiberoptic instrument, passed thorugh a small incision in the abdominal wall and equipped with biopsy forceps, an obturator, scissors or the like, with which to examine the abdominal cavity or perform minor surgery.

Laparoscopy
Examination of the abdominal cavity or performance of minor abdominal surgery using a laparoscope.

Laparotome
A cutting instrument for performing a laparotomy.

Laparotomy
Incision through the abdominal wall.

Laryngectomy
Excision of part or all of the larynx.

Larynx
Valve structure between the trachea (windpipe) and the pharynx (the upper throat); the primary organ of voice production.

Laserscope
A surgical instrument that employs a laser beam to destroy diseased tissue or to create small channels; used to open clogged arteries and, in ophthalmology, to treat patients with glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.

Laser Surgery
The surgical use of lasers.

Lesion
An injury or wound.

Levator
An instrument used to raise a depressed part of the skull.

Ligation
The act of ligating, esp. of surgically tying up a bleeding artery.

Lipectomy
The surgical removal of fatty tissue. Cf. suction lipectomy.

Lipid
A fatty substance in the blood.

Lipoproteins
Transporters of fatty substances in the blood.

Lithotomy
Surgery to remove one or more stones from an organ or duct.

Lithotrite
An instrument for performing lithotrity.

Lithotrity
The operation of crushing stone in the urinary bladder into particles small enough to be voided.

Liver
Largest organ in the body; performs important functions such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

Living Will
A legal document which states your medical preferences for treatment and resuscitation in the event you can no longer speak for yourself.

Lobectomy
Excision of a lobe of an organ or gland.

Lobotomized
Having undergone a lobotomy.

Lobotomy
The operation of cutting into a lobe, as of the brain or the lung.

Local Anesthesia
Anesthetic medicine injected into the site of the operation to temporarily numb that area.

Local Reaction
A reaction that is restricted to a single spot. With vaccines, a local reaction is usually redness, soreness, or a lump where the injection was given. (This is opposed to a systemic reaction, such as a fever or bacteremia, which affects the body as a whole.)

Lop
To cut off (a limb, part, or the like) from a person, animal, etc.

Lumpectomy
The surgical removal of a breast cyst or tumor.

Lymph Nodes
(Also called lymph glands.) - Small glands clustered in the neck, armpits, abdomen, and groin that supply infection-fighting cells to the bloodstream and filter out bacteria and other antigens.

Lymphadenectomy
The excision of one or more lymph nodes, usually as a procedure in the surgical removal or destruction of a cancer.

Lymphatic System
Tissues and organs, including bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes, that produce, store, and carry white blood cells to fight infection and disease.

M

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

Malignant Tumor
A mass of cancer cells that may invade surrounding tissues or spread to distant areas of the body.

Mammogram
A low-dose x-ray of the breast.

Mammoplasty
Reconstruction or alteration in size or contour of the breast.

Mania
An affective disorder characterised by intense euphoria, overactivity and loss of insight.

Mastectomy
The operation of removing all or part of the breast or mamma. Also called "mammectomy".

Mastoid
Back portion of the temporal bone behind the ear.

Mastoidectomy
The removal of part of a mastoid process, usually for draining a infection.

Mastopexy
Fixation of a pendulous breast.

Melena
Blood in the stool.

Meningitis
Inflammation of the covering of the brain or spinal cord.

Meniscectomy
The surgical excision of a meniscus, as of the knee joint.

Memtoplasty
Plastic surgery to correct a functional or cosmetic deformity of the chin.

Microprobe
A miniature probe for use in microsurgery.

Microsurgery
Any of various surgical procedures performed under magnification and with small specialized instruments, permitting very delicate operations, as the reconnection of severed blood vessels and nerves.

Minilaparotomy
Laparotomy with a small incision into the abdomen, often no more than 1 in. (2.5 cm), used sep. for tubal ligation.

Mitral Valve
The valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart.

Modified Radical Mastectomy
The removal of the breast, some lymph nodes in the armpit, and sometimes part of the chest wall muscles.

Mons
The soft, fatty tissue covering the point where the right and left pubic bones come together.

Murmur
A blowing or rasping sound heard while listening to the heart; may or may not indicate problems within the heart or circulatory system.

Myomectomy
The surgical removal of a myoma, esp. the excision of a fibroid tumor from the uterus.

Myotom
Surgical incision of the tympanic membrane.

N

Needle Biopsy
Biopsy procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed through a hollow needle.

Nephrectomy
Excision of a kidney.

Nephrolithotomy
Incision or opening of a kidney pelvis for removal of a calculus.

Nephrotomy
Incision into the kidney, as for the removal of a calculus.

Neuralgia
A painful condition caused by disorders of the nervous system.

Neurectomy
The removal of part or all of a nerve.

Neuritis
Inflammation of a nerve or nerves.

Neurolysis
Separation of adhesions from a nerve fiber.

Neuron
A cell specialized to conduct and generate electrical impulses and to carry information from one part of the brain to another.

Neuropathology
The study of the nervous system.

Neurosurgery
Surgery of the brain or other nerve tissue.

Neurotomy
The cutting of a nerve, as to relieve neuralgia.

Neurotransmitters
Chemical substances that carry impulses from one nerve cell to another; found in the space (synapse) that separates the transmitting neuronís terminal (axon) from the receiving neuronís terminal (dendrite).

Nuclear Medicine
A specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive substances to examine organ function and structure.

O

Obsession
An unpleasant or nonsensical thought which intrudes into a person's mind, despite a degree of resistance by the person who recognizes the thought as pointless or senseless, but nevertheless a product of their own mind. Obsessions may be accompanied by compulsive behaviors which serve to reduce the associated anxiety.

Oncologist
A physician who specializes in treating cancer, including Surgical Oncologist, Radiation Oncologist, Pediatric Oncologist, Gynecologic Oncologist, and Medical Oncologist.

Oophorectomy
The operation of removing one or both ovaries; ovariectomy.

Open-Heart Surgery
Surgery performed on the exposed heart while a heart-lung machine pumps and oxygenates the blood and diverts it from the heart.

Operable
That which can be treated by a surgical operation. Cf "inoperable"

Operated
To have performed a surgical procedure.

Operation
A procedure aimed at restoring or improving the health of a patient, as by correcting a malformation, removing diseased parts, implanting new parts, etc.

Orchiectomy
Excision of one or both testes; castration.

Orthodontics
Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaw.

Orthognathic Surgery
The surgical correction of deformities or malpositions of the jaw.

Orthopaedic Surgeon (Also called Orthopaedist.)
A physician who diagnoses, treats, and manages the rehabilitation process, and provides prevention protocols for patients who suffer from injury or disease in any of the components of the musculoskeletal system.

Orthopaedic Surgery (Also called Orthopaedics.)
The medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of injuries and diseases of the bodyís musculoskeletal system.

Ostectomy
Excision of part or all of a bone.

Osteoclasis
The fracturing of a bone to correct deformity.

Osteoclast
An instrument for effecting osteoclasis.

Osteoplastic
Pertaining to osteoplasty.

Osteotome
A double-beveled chisel like instrument for cutting or dividing bone.

Osteotomy
The dividing of a bone, or the excision of part of it.

Ostomy
Any of various surgical procedures, as a colostomy, in which an artificial opening is made so as to permit the drainage of waste products either into an appropriate organ or to the outside of the body.

Otoplasty
Plastic surgery of the external ear.

Outbreak
An unusually large number of cases of a disease occurring around the same time and place, involving people who all got the disease from the same source or from each other.

Ovariectomy
The operation of removing one or both ovaries; oophorectomy.

Ovaries
Pair of small glands, located on either side of the uterus, in which egg cells develop and are stored and the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced.

Ovariotomy
Incision into or removal of an ovary.

P

Pacemaker
An electronic device that is surgically implanted into the patientís heart and chest to regulate heartbeat.

Palpitation
Sensation of rapid heartbeats.

Palsy
Paralysis of a muscle or group of muscles.

Pancreas
Long gland that lie behind the stomach; manufactures insulin and digestive enzymes.

Pancreatectomy
Excision of part or all of the pancreas.

Pancreatotomy
Incision of the pancreas.

Paracentesis
Puncture of the wall of a cavity to drain off fluid. Also called "tapping."

Paralysis
Inability to move the muscles. Paralysis usually occurs in the arms or legs, but the muscles that control breathing can also be paralyzed.

Parathyroidectomy
The excision of a parathyroid gland.

Pathology
The study of diseases.

Peg Leg
An artificial leg, esp. a wooden one. See Prosthesis.

Penetrating
Noting a wound that pierces the skin, esp. a deep wound entering an organ or body cavity.

Pepsin
Enzyme made in the stomach that breaks down proteins.

Peptic
Related to the stomach and the duodenum, where pepsin is present.

Peptic Ulcer
Sore in the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, usually caused by the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori. An ulcer in the stomach is a gastric ulcer; an ulcer in the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer.

Perfuse
To pass (fluid) through blood vessels or the lymphatic system.

Perfusion
The passage of fluid through the lymphatic system or blood vessels to an organ or a tissue.

Peritonealize
To cover with peritoneum.

Pharyngectomy
Excision of part or all of the pharynx.

Phlebotome
A cutting instrument used for phlebotomy.

Pituitary Gland
Gland at the base of the brain that secretes hormones and regulates and controls other hormone-secreting glands and many body processes, including reproduction.

Placenta
Organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy; links the blood supplies of a pregnant woman to the fetus to provide nutrients and remove waste products.

Plasma
The watery, straw-colored fluid which carries the cellular elements of the blood through circulation.

Plastic
Concerned with or pertaining to the remedying or restoring of malformed, injured, or lost parts: Example: a plastic operation.

Plastic Surgery
The branch of surgery dealing with the repair or replacement of malformed, injured, or lost organs or tissues of the body, chiefly by the transplant of living tissue.

Plicated
Being folded, tucked, or ridged esp. like a fan.

Plomb
Any inert material inserted into a body cavity for therapeutic purpose.

Plug
A patch of scalp with viable hair follicles that is used as a graft for a bald part of the head. Cf. "hair transplant."

Pneumonectomy
Excision of part or all of a lung.

Polyp
A growth that projects from the lining of mucous membrane, such as the intestine.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
In nuclear medicine, a procedure that measures the metabolic activity of cells.

Prefrontal Lobotomy
A psycho-surgical procedure in which the frontal lobes are separated from the rest of the brain by cutting the connecting nerve fibers. Also called "frontal lobotomy"

Preparation
1: The action or process of preparing. 2: Something that is prepared. Example: a medicinal substance made ready for use.

Prepare
To put in proper condition or readiness: Example: to prepare a patient for surgery.

Progestin
Synthetic form of the female sex hormone progesterone.

Prognosis
A prediction of the course of a disease.

Prostatectomy
Excision of part or all of the prostate gland.

Prostatitis
An inflamed condition of the prostate gland that may be accompanied by discomfort, pain, frequent urination, infrequent urination, and sometimes fever.

Prosthesis
A device, either external or implanted, that substitutes for or supplements a missing or defective part of the body.

Prosthetics
The branch of surgery or of dentistry that deals with replacement of missing parts with artificial structures. Cf. "prosthodontics".

Psychosurgery
Treatment of mental disorders by means of brain surgery. Cf. "lobotomy".

Pyloroplasty
The surgical alteration of the pylorus, usually a widening to facilitate the passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum.

Ptyalectasis
Spontaneous or surgical dilatation of a salivary duct.

Pulmonary
Pertains to lungs and respiratory system.

Pulmonary Artery
Blood vessel delivering oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

Purse-String Suture
A suture for a circular opening, stitched around the edge, that closes it when pulled.

Pyloroplasty
The surgical alteration of the pylorus, usually a widening to facilitate the passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum.

R

Radio Knife
An electrical instrument for cutting tissue that by searing severed blood vessels seals them and prevents bleeding.

Radiation
Use of high-energy radiation from x-ray, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Radical Mastectomy
Surgical removal of the entire breast, the pectoral muscles, and the ancillary lymph nodes.

Radiologist
A physician specializing in the medical field of radiology.

Reconstructive Surgery
The restoration of appearance and function following injury or disease, or the correction of congenital defects, using the techniques of plastic surgery.

Rectum
Lower end of the large intestine, leading to the anus.

Reimplantation
The surgical restoration of a tooth, organ, limb, or other structure to its original site.

Replant
To reattach, as a severed arm, finger, or toe, esp. with the use of microsurgery to reconnect nerves and blood vessels.

Reposition
to return to or place in a normal or proper position teeth by orthodontic treatment, i.e. a dislocated shoulder.

Resect
An instrument or appliance for drawing back an impeding part, as the edge of an incision.

Respiratory System
The group of organs responsible for carrying oxygen from the air to the bloodstream and for expelling carbon dioxide.

Revascularization
The restoration of the blood circulation of an organ or area, achieved by unblocking obstructed or disrupted blood vessels or by surgically implanting replacements.

Revascularize
To surgically improve the blood circulation of (an organ or area of the body).

Rhinoplasty
Plastic surgery of the nose.

Rhizotomy
The surgical section or cutting of the spinal nerve roots, usually posterior or sensory roots, to eliminate pain.

Rhytidectomy
Facelift.

Rongeur
A strongly constructed instrument with a sharp-edge, scoop-shaped tip, used for gouging out bone.

S

Saliva
Mixture of water, protein, and salts that makes food easy to swallow; begins digestion.

Salpingectomy
Excision of the fallopian tube.

Salpingostomy
The formation of an artificial opening into a fallopian tube.

Scalpel
A small, light, usually straight knife used in surgical and anatomical operations and dissections.

Scapulary
A shoulder dressing that keeps the shoulder or another bandage in place.

Scarification
An act or instance of scarifying.

Scarificator
A surgical instrument for scarifying.

Scarify
To make scratches or superficial incisions in (the skin, a wound, etc.), as in vaccination.

Schedule
(Or vaccination schedule.) The ages and/orintervals at which children should get vaccinated.

Schizophasia
A severe form of thought disorder.

Sclerotome
An instrument for use in performing a sclerotomy.

Scoop
A spoonlike apparatus for removing substances or foreign objects from the body.

Section
To make an incision.

Seizure
A spell in which the muscles may jerk uncontrollably, or in which the patient will simply stare at nothing. Usually a seizure lasts only a brief time and doesnít cause any permanent harm. A seizure can have many causes, including epilepsy or other brain disorders, or a high fever. Also called convulsion.

Septectomy
Excision of part or all of a septum, esp. the nasal septum.

Sequestrectomy
The removal of dead spicules or portions, esp. of bone.

Set
To put (a broken or dislocated bone) back in position.

Seton
A thread or the like inserted beneath the skin to provide drainage or to guide subsequent passage of a tube.

Sex Change
The alteration, by surgery and hormone treatments, of a personís morphological sex characteristics to approximate those of the opposite sex.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Diseases that are spread through sexual contact; there are over 30 known STDs, the most common being Chlamidia, Gonorrhea, Herpes, Genital Warts, Syphilis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Shunt
A channel through which blood or other bodily fluid is diverted from its normal path by surgical reconstruction or by a synthetic tube.

Sinus
Also called paranasal sinuses. - Air cavities within the facial bones, lined by mucous membranes similar to those in other parts of the airways.

Skin Graft
Skin used for transplanting in skin grafting.

Skin Planing
Dermabrasion.

Snare
A wire noose for removing tumors or the like by the roots or at the base.

Sound
To examine, as the urinary bladder, with a sound.

Spastic Colon
See irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Speculum
An instrument fro rendering a part accessible to observation, as by enlarging an orifice.

Spleen
Organ lying between the stomach and diaphragm that stores red blood cells and filters blood.

Splenectomy
Excision or removal of the spleen. Also called "lienectomy".

Sponge
A sterile surgical dressing of absorbent material, usually cotton gauze, for wiping or absorbing pus, blood, or other fluids during a surgical operation.

Spud
An instrument having a dull flattened blade for removing substances or foreign bodies from certain parts of the body, as wax from the ear.

Stapedectomy
A micro surgical procedure to relieve deafness by replacing the stapes of the ear with a prosthetic device.

Sternum
The breastbone.

Stoma
An artificial opening between two hollow organs or between one hollow organ and the outside of the body, constructed to permit the passage of body fluids or waste products.

Stomach
a saclike expansion of the alimentary canal of a vertebrate communicating anteriorly with the esophagus and posteriorly with the duodenum and being typically a simple often curved sac with an outer serous coat, a strong complex muscular wall that contracts rhythmically, and a mucous lining membrane that contains gastric glands.

Strip
To remove (a vein) by pulling it inside out through a small incision, using a long, hooked instrument.

Strumectomy
Excision of part or all of a goiter.

Suction and Curettage
A technique involving extraction of the fetus through a suction tube, used to perform abortions during the early stages of pregnancy.

Suction Lipectomy
The removal of fatty tissue by making a small incision in the skin, loosening the fat layer, and withdrawing it by suction. Cf. "lipectomy."

Sudden Death
Death that occurs unexpectedly or immediately after onset of symptoms.

Surgeon
A physician who specializes in surgery.

Surgery
The art, practice, or work of treating diseases, injuries, or deformities by manual or operative procedures; Treatment, as an operation, performed by a surgeon.

Surgical
Pertaining to or involving surgery or surgeons.

Surgical Needle
A needle for suturing.

Surgicenter
A surgical facility, not based in a hospital, where minor surgery is performed on an outpatient basis.

Susceptible
Vulnerable to disease. Someone who has never had a disease or been vaccinated against it is susceptible to that disease. Opposite of immune. A person who is immune is no longer susceptible.

Sympathectomy
Surgery that interrupts a nerve pathway of the sympathetic or involuntary nervous system.

Syndesmectomy
Excision of part of a ligament.

Syngraft
A tissue or organ transplanted from one member of a species to another, genetically identical member of the species, as a kidney transplanted from one identical twin to the other. Also called "isograft, isoplastic graft, syngeneic graft" Cf. "allograft, autograft, xenograft".

Systolic Blood Pressure
The highest pressure to which blood pressure rises with the contraction of the heart.

T

Tap
The withdrawal of fluid. Example: "spinal tap"

Taxis
The replacing of a displaced part, or the reducing of a hernia or the like, by manipulation without cutting.

Tenaculum
A small sharp-pointed hook set in a handle, used for seizing and picking up parts in operations and dissections.

Tendon
A cord that connects muscle to bone or other tissue.

Tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon or of the tendon covering; usually caused by not just a single injury, but a series of small stresses that repeatedly aggravate the tendon.

Tenorrpaphy
Suture of a tendon.

Tenotomy
The cutting of a tendon.

Tent
A roll or pledget, usually of soft absorbent material, as lint or gauze, for dilating an orifice, keeping a wound open, etc.

Therapeutic Abortion
Abortion performed when a womanís pregnancy endangers her health.

Thermocoagulation
The coagulation of tissue by heat-producing high-frequency electric currents, used therapeutically to remove small growths or to create specific lesions in the brain.

Thoracoplasty
The operation removing selected portions of the ribs to collapse part of the underlying lung or an abnormal pleural space, usually in the treatment of tuberculosis.

Thoracostomy
The construction of an artificial opening through the chest wall, usually for the drainage of fluid or the release of an abnormal accumulation of air.

Thoracotomy
Incision into the chest cavity.

Thought Disorder
A disorder of the form of thought, where associations between ideas are lost or loosened.

Thrombectomy
Surgical removal of a blood clot from a blood vessel.

Thrombolysis
The breaking up of a blood clot.

Thrombosis
An abnormal condition in which a blood clot develops in the blood vessel or in the heart.

Thymectomy
Surgical removal of the thymus gland.

Throidectomy
Excision of all or a part of the thyroid gland.

Thyrotome
An instrument for cutting the thyroid cartilage.

Thyrotomy
Incision or splitting of the thyroid cartilage; laryngotomy. Cf. "thyroidectomy".

Tibia
Shin Bone.

Tissue
Group or layer of cells that together perform specific functions.

Tomography
From the Greek words "to cut or section" (tomos) and "to write" (graphein), in nuclear medicine, it is a method of separating interference from the area of interest by imaging a cut section of the object.

Tourette Syndrome
Neurological disorder characterized by recurring movements and sounds (called tics).

Toxin
Poison.

Tracheostomy
The construction of an artificial opening through the neck into the trachea, usually for the relief of difficulty in breathing.

Transplantation
Replacing a damaged organ with one from a donor.

Trocar
A sharp-point instrument enclosed in a cannula, used for withdrawing fluid from a cavity,as the abdominal cavity.

Tubal Ligation
A method of permanent sterilization for women, involving the surgical sealing of the fallopian tubes to prevent the ovum from passing from the ovary to the uterus.

Tuck
A plastic surgery operation: Example: a tummy tuck.

Tympanoplasty
Reconstruction of the eardrum and the bones of the middle ear.

U

Ulcer
Sore on the skin surface or on the stomach lining.

Ultrasound
A diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.

Upper GI Endoscopy
Examining into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with an endoscope. (See also endoscopy.)

Ureterolithotomy
Incision of a ureter from removal of a calculus.

Ureterostomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the ureter through the abdominal wall or the flanks, permitting the passage of urine.

Urethra
Narrow channel through which urine passes from the bladder out of the body.

Urethrectomy
Excision or removal of part or all of the urethra.

Urethrostyomy
The construction of an artificial opening from the urethra through the perineum, permitting the passage of urine.

Urethrotomy
An operation to cut a stricture of the urethra.

Uterus
Also called the womb, the uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a womanís lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum, that sheds its lining each month during menstruation and in which a fertilized egg implants and grows into a fetus.

Uvulectomy
Excision of the uvula.

V

Vagina
The passage that connects a woman's outer sex organs with the cervix and uterus

Vaginectomy
Excision of part or all of the vagina.

Vagotomy
The surgical severance of vagus nerve fibers, performed to reduce acid secretion by the stomach. Cf. "vaginal block."

Valve
Fold in the lining of an organ that prevents fluid from flowing backward.

Valvulotomy
The opening, slitting, or fracturing of a heart valve.

Varicocelectomy
The surgical removal or ligation of varicose veins in the scrotal sac.

Varicotomy
Surgical removal of a varicose vein.

Varicose Vein
An abnormally dilated vein, usually found in the legs.

Vasectomy
Excision of the vas deferens, or of a portion of it: performed to effect sterility in men.

Vasoligation
Ligation of the vas deferens.

Vasotomy
Incision or opening of the vas deferens.

Vasovasostomy
The reversal of a vasectomy, performed by surgical reconnection of the severed ends of the vas deferens.

Vein
A blood vessel that carries blood from the body back into the heart.

Veinpuncture
The puncture of a vein for surgical or therapeutic purpose or for collection of blood specimens for analysis.

Ventricular Fibrillation
A condition in which the ventricles contract in rapid and unsynchronized rhythms and cannot pump blood into the body.

Vitrectomy
The micro-surgical procedure of removing the vitreous humor and replacing it with saline solution, performed to improve vision that has been impaired by opacities.

Vivisect
To dissect the living body of (an animal).

Vulva
A woman's external sex organs, including the clitoris, the labia, and opening to the vagina.

W

Wadding
Any large dressing made of cotton or a similar absorbent material that is used to stanch the flow of blood or dress a wound.

X

Xenograft
A graft obtained from a member of one species and transplanted to a member of another species. Also called "heterograft". Cf. "allograft, autograft, syngraft".

X-Ray
A diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.

Xyster
A surgical instrument for scraping bones.

Z

Zoografting
See Zooplasty below

Zooplasty
The transplantation of living tissue to the human body from an animal of another species.

 


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